Jews from Iraq and elsewhere in the Middle East first settled in Yangon (Rangoon) early in the 18th century and established a Sephardi community there. In 1896, they erected the Musameah Yeshua Synagogue on land donated by the government. By the outbreak of World War II, there were over 2,000 Jews in the country. The great majority fled in advance of the Japanese assault and were evacuated to Britain, India and a number of other countries. Only a small number returned after the country was liberated. Over the years, due to emigration and assimilation, the remaining Jewish population dwindled, and today the community is on the verge of extinction.

Israel and Myanmar have full diplomatic relations. Aliya- Since 1948, 751 Jews from Burma have immigrated to Israel.

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